What is the air conditioning? Purpose and type of air conditioning system configured to suit the building


How much do you know about the air conditioning in the buildings you own or manage? In the first place, would you mind if you heard that it is air conditioning? Even if you don't know the details of air conditioning, it may not happen immediately. However, air conditioning is the comfort of the building, which is the satisfaction of users and residents. By understanding what kind of air conditioning there is, and what kind of building your building corresponds to, you can surely improve your building management. Here, we have summarized the contents that can be said to be an introduction to air conditioning, from the basic definition of the word air conditioning to the system configuration content, installation method, and technical classification.

Purpose of air conditioning

What is the air conditioning?

Air conditioning means to harmonize the air. Harmonization means that the temperature, humidity, airflow, and cleanliness of the air are processed to meet the desired conditions and that they are spatially and evenly distributed. It may be easier to understand by rephrasing "creating a comfortable air environment for users and objects installed there."

Industrial and health air conditioning

Air conditioning is broadly classified into two types, "industrial air conditioning" and "healthcare air conditioning" depending on "what is the target". The purpose of industrial air conditioning is to maintain the functions of machines in factories and computers in data centers, to control the quality of materials stored in storage, and to maintain the working environment of the people who work there. Health air conditioning is the air conditioning for general buildings. The aim is to make people who work or live in office buildings, hotels, hospitals, schools, and commercial facilities comfortable and healthy. In the case of a building used for a specific purpose such as an office, a department store, a hotel, a hospital, etc., if it corresponds to a specific building, the air conditioner for health uses the air environmental standard.

What is an air conditioning system?

The air conditioning system is composed of multiple devices with various roles for the purpose of keeping the air environment such as indoor temperature, humidity, airflow, and cleanliness in an optimal state. The heat source device that creates or discards heat for cooling and heating, Conveyor device that carries the created heat, air purification, cooling, heating, humidification dehumidification, etc. It is an air conditioner.  An air conditioning system is made up by combining these devices.

Types of air-conditioning system Classification by medium that carries heat

Air conditioning systems are also classified according to what they use as a medium to carry heat and cool the air. Water, air, and refrigerants are mainly used as the medium that carries heat, and they are classified into four types depending on the combination.

All air method

It is a method to transfer heat by air. An air conditioner mixes the outside air with the return air from the room, heats or cools the air, and blows it into the room through a duct. This method is suitable for large spaces such as theaters and gymnasiums. There are merits that maintenance of equipment is centralized for easy maintenance and the amount of ventilation (the amount of air required to keep room air clean) can be increased. On the other hand, it has disadvantages such as a large machine room and a large duct space in the ceiling.

Air/water combined method

A method that uses both water and air to carry heat. The intake of outside air required to maintain the cleanliness of air is the same as that of the all-air method, and the indoor temperature is controlled by taking hot or cold water into a heat exchanger such as a fan coil unit installed indoors. Since water can carry a large amount of heat in a smaller area than air, it is possible to reduce the space for transferring heat compared to the all-air method. However, there is a risk of water damage due to the installation of water pipes inside the room.

All water method

It is a method that uses only cold or hot water to carry heat. Since it does not use air, it has the advantage of not requiring a large duct space. Unlike the combined air and water method, this method requires the installation of windows and total heat exchangers to take in the outside air to maintain the cleanliness of the air.

Refrigerant system

The representative player is an air conditioner that is familiar to everyone. Compared to other methods, it has higher functionality and lower prices, and it is also excellent in energy saving. This method also requires equipment for taking in outside air, as with the all-water method.

Types of air-conditioning system Classification according to different ventilation methods

There are various air-conditioning systems. By adopting a method that meets the conditions, you can efficiently realize comfortable air conditioning. Let us introduce some typical systems that have different air conditioning systems.

Single duct constant airflow method

Through a single duct (a tube that carries air), the entire building is similarly adjusted. The air conditioner blows a fixed amount of air that can handle the maximum load, and the temperature is adjusted by changing the blowing temperature. With this method, maintenance is easy because it is covered by an integrated air conditioner, while it is difficult to cool the room where there are many people or direct sunlight, while it is effective in rooms where there are few people or the sunlight does not enter. It has the drawback of passing too much.

Single duct variable air volume method

Although air is blown from a single duct, it is the same as the constant airflow method, but the feature is that the room temperature can be adjusted for each preset room by changing the airflow. As a result, the room temperature can be adjusted more finely than the constant airflow method, and when the load is light, the fan power of the air conditioner is reduced to save energy. In addition, it is necessary to pay attention to parts such as temperature unevenness, wind noise when the air volume is reduced, and insufficient intake of outside air.

What is air conditioning zoning?

We have introduced several types of air conditioning systems, but zoning is one of the important factors that determine which air conditioning system to actually use. Zoning is set based on the idea of ​​dividing into several zones, considering the building characteristics and usage, dividing the air conditioning system, and adjusting the temperature and humidity of each zone. The zoning setting requirements are "use-specific zoning" that divides the air-conditioning system according to the purpose of use, such as offices, conference rooms, and break rooms. The optimal air conditioning system and equipment are selected according to the requirements set by zoning.


Efficiently create the air of the building that people can use comfortably while considering the cost and environment. To build such an air conditioning system, professionals in building and air conditioning are required. It is necessary to comprehensively consider the structure and purpose of the building and the characteristics of each air conditioner.



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  1. Very Informative, now I have alot to consider when choosing air conditioners

  2. It is really a very informative post on a topic which we all have experienced but still don't know anything about it. Thanks for sharing.


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